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Difference between emulation and virtualisation?

 
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JohnnyBoy
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 17, 2008 6:46 am    Post subject: Difference between emulation and virtualisation? Reply with quote

I've read articles on virtualisation in an attempt to understand it, but the usual comparison is between Boot Camp and Fusion/Parallels. It seems that Boot Camp is essentially a dual-boot menu; your Mac becomes [i]either[/i] an OS X machine [i]or[/i] a WinXP machine. So that's quite straightforward.

But I keep reading that virtualisation and emulation are not the same thing. When I run Mac OS7.5 in Basilisk II and Ubuntu 6.06 in Fusion, they both appear to be running within emulators on my OS X desktop (see photo). So does anyone know if there's a difference in the way that the two of them work?

[img]http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2131/2340501652_d19e55ae15_o.png[/img]
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Fox
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 17, 2008 6:54 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

As I understand it, emulation involves changing the instructions of a program "on the fly" so that they can be understood by a different processor/platform than they were written for. Virtualization doesn't require any changes for the processor, as the program was written for that processor. But some translation is still needed in virtualization because of the different ways operating systems address their hardware. In other words, less translation overall. BootCamp, Parallels and VMware Fusion are all virtualizers; the old Virtual PC program is an emulator. Basilisk is also an emulator. It is changing instructions written for a 68K mac so that they can be understood by an Intel mac.

By the way, you can run Basilisk directly on your Intel Mac; you don't need to do it through Linux/Fusion. Also, your photo suggests that you haven't installed VMware Tools yet, or that you need to do it again after updating your VMware. Smile
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JohnnyBoy
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 17, 2008 9:49 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks for responding, Fox. The difference seems obvious now; running an OS that wasn't designed for my processor would be much trickier than running an OS that was. I stand corrected on my understanding of Boot Camp - I thought that it was just a menu program.

My screengrab was a little bit confusing; Basilisk [i]is[/i] running as an OS X app, although I can see how it appears to be running on the Ubuntu desktop. I keep getting messages from the trial Fusion software encouraging me to install VMWare Tools, but I don't know what it is or why I would need it.
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Chris..S
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 17, 2008 11:24 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Bootcamp isn't virtualisation at least not in the accepted sense of the term. Amongst other things its a boot menu and it provides the magic that allows Windows to see a BIOS on an EFI computer. Windows under bootcamp has full access to the hardware in the same way that it does on a PC.

Virtualisation creates isolated environments with virtual representations of the underlying hardware. These virtual representations do not need to be the same as the actual hardware. As far as the client OS is concerned these isolated environments are PCs.

Emulation is like virtualisation, except the CPU is also virtualised.

There is another form, para-virtualisation, which does't virtualise as much as virtualisation. Xen provides para-virtualisation (although it now can support full virtualisation on x86).

VMWare tools is a set of utilities/drivers particularly useful for GUI. Fusion provides the client OS with virtual hardware. The OS installs its normally drivers for that hardware. But those normal drivers don't know anything about being a client OS in a virtual environment. VMWare Tools updates some drivers with that knowledge. E.g. without VMWare Tools the mouse cursor is trapped inside the VM and you need to hit ctrl+command to free it. With VMWare tools installed, the mouse behaves as normal.
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Fox
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 17, 2008 11:50 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks, Chris..S; I stand corrected on BootCamp and your answer is much more complete than mine.

VMware Tools also allows you to change the size of the virtualization window on the fly in the same way you can with any Mac window (pull out the right lower corner and the image adjusts).
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stupkid
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 17, 2008 2:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Wikipedia has some more lengthy explanations:

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_emulation]Software Emulation[/url]

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization]Virtualization[/url]

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_machine]Virtual Machine[/url]
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Chris..S
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 20, 2008 12:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Also see this recent article at Anandtech. http://it.anandtech.com/IT/showdoc.aspx?i=3263
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jkgm
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 20, 2008 3:13 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is a great discussion thread! I'm doing a presentation on Parallels at our next Mac Users group meeting, and your thoughts on it have helped me distill how I'm going to explain the difference between Paralles/VMWare and Virtual PC.
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JohnnyBoy
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 20, 2008 5:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks jkgm! You've reassured me that even my dumbass questions serve some purpose... Smile

Just out of curiosity, in which part of the world is your Mac user group based?
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PostPosted: Sat Mar 22, 2008 10:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

[quote="JohnnyBoy"]Thanks jkgm! You've reassured me that even my dumbass questions serve some purpose... Smile

Just out of curiosity, in which part of the world is your Mac user group based?[/quote]
Thanks! Smile We're in Little Rock, Arkansas, home of one of the next Apple stores! I can't wait! Laughing
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